Research / 3rd Year


Campbell’s soup can 1962 (image from MoMA)

Andy Warhol was argued to be the most important artist of the 20th century, his worked had consisted in a vast majority of varieties within the media of art such as photography, fashion and film making. One of my personal favourites was the American artist’s series based on everyday life objects. Despite the character of Andy Warhol with a goal of introducing a more creative methodology of entertainment, the artist was particularly interested in forms of everyday life objects. The soup cans for example were presented in a commercial style, like if they were being put on the shelfs in a supermarket but with an artificial approach of simple investment in the structures flavours (metaphorically being their functionalities).

“In formal terms alone, Warhol’s art of the seventies and eighties followed general patterns of evolution from the lean austerity of the early sixties-ascetic in colour, sharp in contour, frontal and spaceless in structure”. Page 31, Chapter 4, The Right Place (The Founding of The Andy Warhol Museum) by Avis Berman, The Andy Warhol Museum: Copyright, The Andy Warhol Museum, Carnegie Institute (1993).

Andy Warhol, Green Coca-Cola Bottles, 1962




“Robert Rauschenberg has been one of the most innovative, prolific and influential artists during the past fifty years. The variety and volume of his production resists any categorisation, making a comprehensive retrospective an almost impossible undertaking both intellectually and physically. Despite the lack of Robert’s work being in the most famous art galleries, his work are still important aspects and periods being practically unknown to viewers and specialists alike”.

Introduction by Josef Helfenstein, Robert Rauschenberg: Cardboards and Related Pieces: Copyright Menial Foundation, Houston (2007)

Robert Rauschenberg was a theoretical developer in art, he was the kind of artist that would immediately establish another piece of work once finishing another, his work consisted in a variety of broken art rules which made Robert a pioneer within the art world (purely across America). Rauschenberg worked with an extreme variety of materials as well as media (in similarity to the development of Andy Warhol with a difference of taking the direction to a whole new level), the works have involved boxes, socks, umbrellas and many other sculptures being placed on his physical canvases for example, the complete randomness of composition and choice of the materials doing so, consisted in simplistic ambiguousness much like the entertainment of Warhol which Rauschenberg had personally worked with himself.

ANDY WARHOL (1928-1987) Andy Warhol and Robert Rauschenberg unique gelatin silver print 8 x 10 in. (20.3 x 25.4 cm.) Executed circa 1978. © The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc.


One of Rauschenberg’s first works with this constant as well as consistent methodology, was the 1953 Automobile Tire Print which was an experiment Rauschenberg developed with a friend John Cage, who was a composer he met at Black Mountain College in North Carolina, a college specially dedicated to those who wished to break boundaries of art with the methodology of indisciplined classes with a variety of artificial mediums, this opportunity was extremely profound as Robert Rauschenberg within a society of his era during the 50s could feel like he could legally be himself as an artist, a master of non-conformers.

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Collection, 1954/1955 Oil, paper, fabric, wood, and metal on canvas 80 × 96 × 3 1/2 in 203.2 × 243.8 × 8.9 cm




Wolfgang Tillmans is a German fine-art photographer that has spent many years developing work that was distinguished by observation of his surroundings and an ongoing investigation of the photographic medium’s foundations. Like Rauschenberg, Tillmans was an unpredictable artist with such satisfying perspectives in the world’s culture of forms such as colourful fashion, nudes and still life objects. Once the photographs of everyday life were captured, Tillmans decided to take a step further during the editing processes, this direction was going towards other photographic techniques such as printing which brought an essence into his exhibitions by questioning visitors of what photography can be or how it can be reinvigorated.

Images courtesy of Andrea Rosen, New York


my little experimentation with still life in natural light inspired by Wolfgang Tillmans



  Orange: A series of my colleague Beth inspecting the work of Wolfgang Tillmans at Tate Modern 

During early 2017, I visited the photography exhibition of Wolfgang Tillmans at Tate Modern in London with some university colleagues, during this trip, I negotiated with one of my friends Beth about an idea. The idea was simple as I would casually photograph her while inspecting the particular works of Tillmans that had similar tones to her jumper. The photographs added new orange tones by mixing two inspired tones with the consistent combination of orange clothing as well as other photographic tones and materials that Wolfgang Tillmans himself had experimented on which I thought overall as a photographer was worth the approach as well as researching.




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In May of 2016, Coldplay released their album “A Head Full of Dreams” which included a song called “Up&Up”, this song had a music video which consistently had a variety of everyday life and solar systematic elements which were used in a video media collage style to create the audio visual for the song. The images down below showed me some inspiring examples which had also correlated with my idea of my favourite photographic developments of artificial computer editing and the subject of architecture in an abstract context. These particular example would be image two, three and four.


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Audio Visual Imagery is owned by Parlophoto productions


Heterotopia is a concept in human geography elaborated by philosopher Michel Foucault to describe places and spaces that function in non-hegemonic conditions. These are spaces of otherness, which are irrelevant, that are simultaneously physical and mental, such as the space of a phone call or the moment when you see yourself in the mirror.

Foucault, Michel (1971). The Order of Things. New York: Vintage Books.





Herb Greene: Prairie House 1960

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Eduardo MacintoshImagining Recovery 


“Polly Braden has become renowned for her documentary photography exploring the relationship between everyday life, work, leisure and economics. Searching for small and telling gestures her images are acutely observed portraits and broader assessments of contemporary culture”.

“These are offices built to look great in photographs.  Each new London landmark is launched on a wave of computer generated anticipation, reducing the public city to publicity. But in the end a city is not its buildings, it is its people and there is something salutary in the way Londoners fail to live up, or down, to the cosmetic gloss of their surroundings. Whether or not we wish to, we just don’t mirror these facades”.


Polly Braden: London’s Square Mile 2014




Mask XIV 2006 by John Stezaker born 1949

John Stezaker Mask XIV: 2006

“John Stezaker’s work re-examines the various relationships to the photographic image: as documentation of truth, purveyor of memory, and symbol of modern culture. In his collages, Stezaker appropriates images found in books, magazines, and postcards and uses them as ‘readymades’. Through his elegant juxtapositions, Stezaker adopts the content and contexts of the original images to convey his own witty and poignant meanings”. The work of Stezaker shows quite a humorous addition in the emotional tones of the culture around him, a pioneer of the found photography movement which continues to this very day as the entertainment of modern media technologically generated and inspired millions who develop so passionately, that this movement occasionally becomes part of the second nature of humanity.




Zaha Hadid is arguably one of the best architects in todays’s generation, her work is often unusual or abstractly constructed into a variety of forms in many global spaces. My personal favourites had been stadiums as the structures have this character that ties with the activities within them, for example, the swimming pool inside the London Aquatics centre has a window in shape of a wave that correlates to the functionality of the sport.


London 2012 Aquatics Centre in Stratford UK



This publication theorises the interesting approach towards the abstract art style, the style was established around the 20th century and author Anna Mosynzka stated that abstract art “exists in varying degrees and forms. Some abstract art is abstracted from nature; its starting point is the ‘real’ world. The artist selects a form and then simplies it until the image bears only stylised similarities to the original, or is changed entirely beyond recognition”.

“Unlike portrait or landscape paintings, which are believed to represent the word, abstract paintings apparently refers only to invisible, inner states or simply to itself. It thus challenges the spectator and raises puzzling questions”, (such as its purpose).

I have notified this statement as I have experimented this approach with rather different materials, thus being a camera which has the ability to capture images which spectators would momentarily have the same experience as they would have when approaching an abstract art created out of paint or graphic design in terms of figuring the image out for some time. The interesting aspect of the work’s purpose is that it technically presents reality as cameras are the artificial tool that develops the ingredients of our lives and nature and the real world is often surrounded by shapes that question us rather ambiguously.

Mosynzka, Anna (1990) Abstract Art:  Thames and Hudson Ltd, London.


Piet Mondrian – Composition with Yellow, Blue and Red, 1937 (Left) / Composition with Yellow, Black, Blue, Red and Gray, 1921 (Right)

Piet-Mondrian-Composition-with-Yellow-Blue-and-Red-1937-Left-Composition-with-Yellow-Black-Blue-Red-and-Gray-1921-Right-Images-via-wikipediaorg-and-pinterestcom Outside Love image 9V2

Sam Gasson – Within the Outside / Image 4




Signs have been an important element of modern art ever since 1911 and 1912, when Picasso and Braque put stenciled letters and scraps of newspaper into their Cubist pictures. But Jasper Johns’s flag, map, and number pictures of the 1950s and early 1960s initiated a revolutionary transformation in the character of sign painting.





Peter Halley’s paintings were known for having the theme which introduced the Neo-Geo movement around the 1980s, this movement consisted in shapes having a two-dimensional presence which resembled the modern architectural structures we see publicly today.



Over the last decades, the terms ‘virtual’ and ‘virtual space’ have come to take an increasingly central part in our culture. They are recurring in fields as diverse as media, art, science, technology, philosophy, and architecture.

A virtual place creates its own ‘image space’, inside of which it is then located. The idea of virtual space is generated by the possibility of considering the accumulated local spaces of all virtual places as forming a single overall entity. Such an entity is obviously highly fragmented, since it is made up of count- less, separate, ‘possible visible worlds’.


The spirituality of the city spaces I witnessed expressed consumerism as well as the employment in which the functionality of these structures inhabited. This nature on the outside is just the cover of the book, which is generally a mystery until its doors are opened, the question is what is visually presented before the meanings explain within the outside?

the combination of these forms and colours present a virtual and abstract world that already existed within a consumeristic culture, a culture that constantly updates itself with an open variety of opportunities that we could access both physically as working colleagues and visually as photographers.




Scene from the movie “Blade Runner 2049”

Blade Runner 2049 is a 2017 American science fiction film directed by Denis Villeneuve, the futuristic themes including the architecture of Los Angeles in the film had some really interesting artificial styles as the shapes and colours brought in a new identity to the city despite its dark tones, the scene in the image above is my personal favourite as I was fascinated by the “reception like” room from its outside as well as its highlighted interior with its shaded in bright yellow artificial lighting.



Quantum Break by Remedy Entertainment and Microsoft Studios



Mirrors Edge by DICE & EA Games

 Video games in todays generation of computer graphics have had a huge impact in the gaming community as video games come across much more creatively satisfying than the usual point gaining platformers we had in the past few years. Mirrors Edge for example consists in surreal atmospheres by having white buildings having coloured highlighted areas or objects within areas guiding the player’s direction towards their objectives or destinations during the missions they play through the story/campaign. When looking at the two posters, Quantum Break has a similar style. The game is about two main protagonists who gain powers to change time after a science experiment goes wrong, the gameplay often changes its environment when the player activates the time powers making the space temporarily change into hallucinated dream like spaces by changing colours and crumbling textures into triangular pieces.


Mirrors Edge Concept Art 


Quantum Break Gameplay



Bernd and Hilla Becher. Winding Towers. 1966-97.

The Bechers were pioneers of the architectural theme within photography, their consistent series of industrial structures such as factories and water towers in a typographic display show a melancholic experience of a a dead world as we currently live in a world where these machines are distinct and defunct.




Although Walker Evans was known for his series based on The Great Depression, he has also taken his journalistic approach towards the buildings of New York, the composition were generally from the ground with an upwards point of view or out of a building window to present a structure’s point of view towards another face to face.

Scans of images I found in “Walker Evans At Work” book 


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Olafur Eliasson, colour activity house 2010 book scan

Olafur Elliasson as an architect has worked across many structures and how they can express their purposes with audience participation or experience. “By meditating peoples experiences, I wanted them to have an urban situation explicit and thereby hand over responsibility for how those people perceive and co-create their immediate environment”. The work Colour activity house consists in three free standing curved coloured glass presenting the three primary hues of the subtractive colour model which present themselves both through natural light and centred artificial light which constantly change as the public walk around it.





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